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Environmental Aspects Varieties of herbicide resistant plants have been obtained by induced or spontaneous mutagenesis in corn, canola, lentil and sunflower. Specifically for the imidazolinone chemical class herbicides, this approach was already used in cultivated varieties in different countries with a technology named Clearfield. For the sake of alimentary and agronomic safety strategy, existence of herbicide resistant varieties with different action mechanisms is desirable so that a farmer may have tools for managing resistant invading plants whenever they appear as a result of the applied pressure Fedoroff and Brown, Herbicide tolerant varieties have contributed in widening direct sowing cultivars, a highly beneficial practice to the environment.
Attempts to obtain the imidazolinone resistance in soybeans through chemically induced mutation resulted in partial resistance only, which was useless in the fields.
The mutagenesis process results in global alterations of gene expression that are higher than those obtained by genetic engineering, as shown in rice by Batista et al.
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The fact is an additional assurance of safety provided by directed genetic manipulation. The interested companies submitted a well grounded application with a complete molecular and chemical characterization of the insert and its products. Results of studies on number, germination pattern and morphological characterization of microspores pollenas well as germination characteristics indicate absence of significant differences between the plant transgenic and non-transgenic isolines.
Equally, there was no recorded difference regarding seed dormancy or likelihood of establishment of long term reproduction structures that, on soybean, are practically nihil. Documents submitted by applicants discuss aspects of a possible horizontal transfer and consequences of the event.
The conclusions, supported by competent bibliographic references, concur to the fact that, besides being unlikely, no relevant consequence will take place with horizontal transfer of the transgene to the microbiota inhabitants. A number of studies were submitted in this analysis that support the assertion that the GM soybean analyzed is no different from its non-GM isoline regarding ability to extract or introduce substances in soil, equaling, therefore, the potential impact to the environment under this viewpoint.
Biodegradability of soybean plant tissues in soil was assessed after harvest, as well as that of the AHAS protein, providing equal results for modified and conventional plants. Quantitative and qualitative results of Soybean CV agronomic behavior were equivalent to conventional soybean plants either in the present or absence of imidazolinone class herbicides during two harvest periods in different places of the country. The aspects assessed were: The conclusion was that Soybean CV plants and derivatives showed agronomic properties compatible with those of conventional plants of the farmed soybean in Brazil.
All studies related to assessments of human and animal safety and adverse effects to the environment clearly lead to the understanding that there was not and are not pleiotropic and epistatic effects of the inserted genes along at least seventeen generations of soybean containing the genetic construct.
Bibliographic data and results submitted confirmed the transgenic variety risk level as being equivalent to that of non-transgenic ones regarding soil microflora, non-target vertebrate and invertebrate animals, as well as other plants.
Tests were additionally conducted to assess incidence of soybean foliar diseases, based on statistic studies of foliar area damage. In no place and for no disease any significant difference between Soybean CV and the isoline was recorded, demonstrating that insertion of gene csr failed to affect susceptibility to diseases.
Studies were also conducted in seven places during the harvest and in six places during the late summer harvest to assess Soybean CV effects to nematodes, with a number of treatments, in both presence and absence of some herbicides. Data enabled a conclusion that, independently from the herbicide, the soybean fails to cause impact in free-living nematode populations and to contribute for an increased number of parasite nematodes in the plant. Studies aimed at assessing incidence of predators, number of insects of orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hemiptera detected in Soybean CV failed to record statistically significant differences in plants of the isoline or of the conventional soybeans in the four moments of the sampling.
Besides, the damage caused by insect feeding among treatments and among essay locations was minimal, no differences recorded among treatments.Cinetica Enzimatica 1
Resistance to insect damage and effect of Soybean CV in pest insect populations in the fields were no different from the ones found in the isoline and varieties of conventional soybean.
Assessment of symbiontic organisms was conducted in seven essays during the harvest and six during the late summer harvest. There were no significant differences in populations, and figures were compatible to the ones commonly found in experiments with bradyrhizobium-inoculated soybean.
A good nodulation was recorded in all places and treatments. Regarding the remaining microorganisms, especially those of the microbial carbon biomass MCB there was no statistically significant differences recorded among treatments in any place and for different phases of plant development. Analysis of variance was conducted for all places and no significant differences were recorded among treatments.
Equally, for the microbial nitrogen biomass, no statistically significant difference was found among treatments. The technique of rDNA profiles, also used in harvest and late summer harvest samples, was used to qualitative assessment of the soil microbial community.
The results showed that there were no effects caused by the different treatments or by application of different herbicides in the soil microbial community qualitative characteristics. Regarding soil microfauna, population and diversity were assayed in seven places during the harvest and in six places during the late summer harvest.
Results of the impact assessment in cultivation of herbicide-treated genetically modified soybean showed an absence of changes in populations and community diversity of soil macro-organisms when compared to the isoline and to commercial varieties used as standards. Regarding assessment of soybean dispersion mechanisms in the air, water and soil, insertion of the csr gene failed to change any botanical trait of the plant.
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Soybean has no natural dispersion mechanisms for its propagation and reproduction structures in air, water and soil; however it may be disseminated by insects, agricultural tools and man. Soybean is predominantly self-fertile. In case of pollen dissemination by insects, it may take place by hymenopters, though in significantly low rates Beard and Knoles, ; Erickson et al.
Thus, Soybean CV is botanically comparable to its isoline. Regarding horizontal gene transfer from plants to bacterium, followed by functional expression, it involves an extremely complex process that demands successive phases with very low probability of occurrence. As the first phase, the gene must be available intact in the environment, but this is extremely improbable in view of the endonuclease action of the plant itself.
Besides, the quantity of the insert is significantly smaller when compared to the plant genomic DNA. Once made available in intact form, the gene must be captured by an able microorganism, yet not all microorganisms may be transformed in a laboratory facility that uses optimized conditions not found in nature. Studies concluded that after different transformation essays, the quantity of bacterium in the soil and rhizosphere that are naturally transformable is extremely low Richter and Smalla, After the events have taken place, besides containing the complete gene coding sequence, the DNA fragment must contain, in addition, sequences that are homologue to the genome of the receiving organism to facilitate a stable integration to the fragment by homologue recombination.
Finally, the gene must contain its appropriate sequences for expression; however in this case and in most transformation events, cassettes are constructed with promoters that do not act as transition promoters in bacteria and fungi, even facing the possibility of stable integration to the host genome.
Thus, transference of gene csr features a very poor likelihood, under the demonstrated conditions, as shown in other studies Miki and McHugh, ; Van de Eede et al. All evidence submitted in the proceeding and bibliographic references confirm the risk level or the transgenic variety as being equivalent to that of the non-transgenic varieties regarding soil microbiota, as well as other plants and human and animal health.
One of these possibilities could be found in the use of nanomaterials, nanobiotechnology, and the recently proposed nanorobots; all these would foster the maintenance of oral health in minute periods of time. This article is a revision of the applications of molecular engineering techniques to the dental sciences, and how these new techniques are contributing to the development of new dental materials such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanocomposites.
These new techniques can be directly applied in the clinic and in the dental profession, they offer an array of possibilities of bearing enormous impact in conservative procedures. Nanotechnology, dentistry, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, tissue regeneration.
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This has arisen as a consequence of the destruction caused by dental caries, which is considered the most frequent and expensive ailment in the world. The dental profession, since its beginnings has always considered that removal and restoration of demineralized tissue were indispensable procedures to solve the sequels caused by this pandemic. In response to the demand of restorations where aesthetics are of paramount importance, advances in science and technology have concentrated their efforts to create materials that can restore lost dental tissue and provide an appearance similar to that of the tooth's natural structure.
For these reasons, and as a consequence of advances of science in dentistry, we aspire to survey all the applications of nanodentistry in dental sciences, the contributions of these new technologies in the development of innovative materials with nanometric range particles and their daily clinic applications such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanocomposites amongst others.
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We also would like to survey the array of possibilities and contributions which are considered of great importance in the conservative procedures of the profession, which revolutionize ancestral therapies and dental procedures. Nowadays, it is hard to conceptualize the area of Dental Sciences, since the best part of research is geared towards the concept of restoration, and the main concerns for a restorative material is stability and aesthetics of the mutilated tooth.
Nevertheless, basic science research increases the complexity of dental science since it is one of the few areas focused in the search of strategies to regenerate and or restore the stomatognatic system which in turns comprises an enthralling and enigmatic microcosmos in the human body: Within this frame of reference, research has shown the regenerative ability of the tooth in cases when it is submitted to elements like fluoride which foster its demineralization.
With this, scientific basis are established, and they refute the erroneous conception of dental caries as an irreversible process.
It therefore becomes a precedent which positively influences preservation and maintenance of dental structures. The complexity of dental science is observed when analyzing teeth. The tooth is not only a compound of soft and mineralized tissues, it is a vast world of cellular communications, signals and interactions, beginning at embryonic stages Figure 2. Moreover, if we incorporate to this tissue interaction the symbiotic interrelationships existing between tooth and colonizing microorganisms which in these circumstances can turn pathogenicthis complexity is even more intensified.
Nanotechnology is described as science and techniques which control and manipulate matter at nanometric level. In this tiny world, researchers find a new and wonderful cosmos, which allows for the definite exploration of a sector of technological development, which, up to this date, was in the dark, and can now enlighten the world of dentistry.
This might be due to the mild conditions used in enzyme extraction, compared to hexane extraction, where an accelerated temperature may be used.
The Rancimat method is a powerful and fast technique for estimating the oxidative stability of oils Kowalski et al. The induction period accelerated oxidation test of the corn oil samples extracted by the different enzymes, individually or in combination, was significantly lower than that of crude hexane-extracted oil. Phospholipids are one of these minor components which have strong antioxidant effects and naturally transfer to the oil during extraction.
They attributed the significant decrease in the induction period after enzymatic degumming compared to that of the crude oil due to the great reduction in phospholipid content after degumming.
The authors reported that the oil obtained by enzymatic extraction is similar to the degummed oil with low phosphatide content, compared to the hexane extracted oil, which suggests the possibility of employing physical refining. Another point of view suggested that the decrease in the phospholipid content after aqueous enzymatic extraction was probably not due to the enzyme treatment, but resulted from the washing effect of the water Mehanni et al.
So the significant decrease in the induction period observed in our study after the aqueous enzymatic extraction might be due to the reduction in phospholipid content compared to hexane extraction where phospholipids are dissolved and extracted along with the oil. This led to the notion that the prolonged induction period of oil extracted by hexane might be attributed due to its phosphatide and tocopherol contents as well as the presence of other bioactive components like polyphenols.
Applying bovine pancreatic protease in corn germ oil extraction produced a maximum oil yield 5. The combination of cellulase and bacterial or animal protease in the extraction process produced higher oil yield than individual application. The quality of oil extracted by the enzymatic aqueous method is better than that extracted by the traditional hexane method based on the lower color index and acid value. Moreover, lower peroxide values were reported for the oil samples extracted by cellulase and bovine protease individually and higher radical scavenging activity was recorded for the oil sample produced by combining cellulase with animal protease.