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The Susquehanna Valley Mycological Society (S.V.M.S.)

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Representing academic research across the fields of medical mycology, plant Identification Keys, English names of fungi and details of Mycological Events and Date: 17th - 19th September How to access your online journals. Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and . To date, penicillin, lovastatin, ciclosporin, griseofulvin, cephalosporin and LSD are the most famous drugs that Online lectures in mycology University of South Carolina; The WWW Virtual Library: Mycology · MykoWeb links. Subcutaneous Mycoses. These are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent.

Medically important orders and genera include: Zygomycosis in the debilitated patient is the most acute and fulminate fungal infection known.

The disease typically involves the rhino-facial-cranial area, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, skin, or less commonly other organ systems.

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It is often associated with acidotic diabetes, starvation, severe burns, intravenous drug abuse, and other diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma, immunosuppressive therapy, or the use of cytotoxins and corticosteroids, therapy with desferrioxamine an iron chelating agent for the treatment of iron overload and other major trauma.

The infecting fungi have a predilection for invading vessels of the arterial system, causing embolization and subsequent necrosis of surrounding tissue. A rapid diagnosis is extremely important if management and therapy are to be successful. Predisposing factors include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or acidosis, steroid induced hyperglycemia, especially in patients with leukemia and lymphoma, renal transplant and concomitant treatment with corticosteroids and azathioprine.

Infections usually begin in the paranasal sinuses following the inhalation of sporangiospores and may involve the orbit, palate, face, nose or brain. Predisposing conditions include haematological malignancies, lymphoma and leukemia, or severe neutropenia, treatment with cytotoxins and corticosteroids, desferrioxamine therapy; diabetes and organ transplantation.

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Infections result by inhalation of sporangiospores into the bronchioles and alveoli, leading to pulmonary infraction and necrosis with cavitation. A rare entity, usually associated with severe malnutrition, particularly in children, and gastrointestinal diseases which disrupt the integrity of the mucosa. Primary infections probable result following the ingestion of fungal elements and usually present as necrotic ulcers.

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Local traumatic implantation of fungal elements through the skin, especially in patients with extensive burns, diabetes or steroid induced hyperglycemia and trauma. Lesions vary considerably in morphology but include plaques, pustules, ulcerations, deep abscesses and ragged necrotic patches.

May originate from any of the above, especially in severely debilitated patients with haematological malignancies, burns, diabetes or uraemia.

Central Nervous System alone: Traumatic implantation leading to brain abscess. This is why zygomycetous fungi that are clearly visible in direct microscopic or histopathological mounts are often difficult to grow in culture from clinical specimens.

If you are not sure hold the specimen in saline or BHI broth until the results of the direct microscopy or frozen histology sections are known. If zygomycetous hyphae are present proceed as above, otherwise homogenised the specimen and plate out. Examine specimens for broad, infrequently septate, thin-walled hyphae, which often show focal bulbous dilations and irregular branching.

As a rule, a positive direct microscopy, especially from a sterile site, should be considered significant, even if the laboratory is unable to culture the fungus. Inoculate specimens onto primary isolation media, like Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Most zygomycetes are sensitive to cycloheximide actidione and this agent should not be used in culture media. Look for fast growing, white to grey or brownish, downy colonies.

Despite being recognised as common laboratory contaminants, zygomycetes are infrequently isolated in the clinical laboratory. Obviously, in patients without predisposing conditions, the isolation of a zygomycete from a non-sterile site, such as skin or sputum, must be interpreted with caution, especially in the absence of direct microscopy. There are currently no commercially available serological procedures for the diagnosis of zygomycosis.

Zygomycetes are usually fast growing fungi characterised by primitive coenocytic mostly aseptate hyphae.

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Asexual spores include chlamydoconidia, conidia and sporangiospores contained in sporangia borne on simple or branched sporangiophores. Sexual reproduction is isogamous producing a thick-walled sexual resting spore called a zygospore. Most isolates are heterothallic i. This includes the arrangement and number of sporangiospores, shape, colour, presence or absence of columellae and apophyses, as well as the arrangement of the sporangiophores and the presence or absence of rhizoids.

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Growth temperature studies 25,37,45C can also be helpful. Sporulation may be stimulated by the use of nutrient deficient media, like cornmeal-glucose-sucrose-yeast extract agar, Czapek Dox agar, or by using the agar block method on water agar.

Lichtheimia corymbifera, Apophysomyces elegans, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Mortierella wolfii, Mucor sp. Systemic Zygomycetes — Mucormycosis. Medical Mycology, 10th edition, Hodder Arnold London. Infections caused by entomophthoraceous fungi: Zygomycosis due to entomophthoraceous fungi: Infections are chronic, slowly progressive and generally restricted to the subcutaneous tissue in otherwise healthy individuals. Other characteristics that separate these infections from those caused by mucoraceous fungi are a lack of vascular invasion or infarction and the production of a prolific chronic inflammatory response, often with eosinophils and Splendore-Hoeppli phenomena around the hyphae.

Zygomycosis caused by Basidiobolus ranarum: This is a chronic inflammatory or granulomatous disease generally restricted to the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs, chest, back or buttocks, primarily occurring in children and with a predominance in males. Initially, lesions appear as subcutaneous nodules which develop into massive, firm, indurated, painless swellings which are freely movable over the underlying muscle, but are attached to the skin which may become hyperpigmented but not ulcerated.

This is a chronic inflammatory or granulomatous disease that is typically restricted to the nasal submucosa and characterised by polyps or palpable restricted subcutaneous masses.

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Clinical variants, including pulmonary and systemic infections have also been described. Most cases have been reported from the tropical rain forest areas of central and west and south and central America. Infections usually begin with unilateral involvement of the nasal mucosa.

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Symptoms include nasal obstruction, drainage and sinus pain. Subcutaneous nodules develop in the nasal and perinasal regions and progressive generalised facial swelling may occur.

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Infections also occur in horses usually producing extensive nasal polyps and other animals. Orders can be made of complete new volumes of the magazine and of those issued since to date that are still available in the headquarters of the Society for distribution. Do not forget to include the following details in your application: The current yearly subscription fee, incl. VAT, shipping and handling: It is sent to destination through the Czech Post in accordance with its terms and conditions.

The prices and supply dates are subject to change without notice. Mushroom Advice Centre Mondays: This special section of the Society, located in its Prague-based headquarters, was founded in already. It is designed to provide visitors with practical information concerning edibility and uses of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms. Consultancy on mushrooms is provided also by email at but advice seekers must be aware that identification of fungi species on the basis of photo images only is difficult if not impossible or at least unreliable.

Public lectures Every year two cycles of lectures for the public are organized — the spring cycle March - June and the autumn cycle October - December.

The lectures are held in Czech language. The main lecture themes are variable, e. The visitors can bring fresh fungi there for determination. You can find the program here. Such public shows are educational and usually comprise hundreds of exhibits — representing most of the species that can be found during the current season in Czech forests, meadows and gardens.